Birth of “modern art”
Toulouse-Lautrec , the Moulin Rouge: Two women waltzing , (1892)
Modern art is distinguished by its desire for independence and the birth of the art critic . Indeed, at the same time, the art of writing is about: criticism is often a speech engaged in the work. Goethe and Matisse wrote on color. Many artists publish texts or obvious ( Dadaism , Futurism , Surrealism , etc.. 2 ).
The appearance of the photograph has an influence on many artists of xix th century and the xx th century , from Degas to Picasso , Matisse , Miró , and others which will become the leading figures of modern art . As a result, artists claiming to modern art is expressed through a variety of mediums: drawing, painting and sculpture, primarily, but also photography, film, ceramics, architecture, decorative arts or performing arts . Thus, Picasso was interested in everything what is visual arts, Dalí made film with Luis Buñuel and transposes some of his sculptures pictorial themes, Le Corbusier was also a painter, Brassaï photography, but also draws and so on.
The concept of “modern art”
The concept of “modern art” is defined by both the style and choice of subjects. It features its own art in the first half of the xx th – 1905 is the year of scandal Fauves at the Salon d’Automne – but it is between 1950 and 1960 that the very term “modern” takes on its meaning and is used to identify a period.
The notion of modern art invades and institutions in xx th century, but it emerges in 1850 to describe the major changes in the xix th century from technical and industrial revolutions.
“Modernity” is a mode of thought, life and creation that is resolutely again, based on the change and in response (as is always the case with major changes) to the time that preceded it.
In The Painter of Modern Life , Baudelaire finds beauty in the street and he sees changing, mobile in the modern artist, it welcomes the ability to identify the transient daily the eternal beauty.
At Walt Whitman , we try to observe the impressive daily in perpetual motion.
The beauty is no longer the province of Antique. Mass culture and popular entertainment crush and sign the end of the exaltation of official morality. There are new topics to be addressed stamped with a brand new modern, particularly those derived from the Industrial Revolution . And La Gare Saint-Lazare to Monet , where one finds little nostalgic look, this is true modernity.
Key Impressionist apparent differs from the key that was previously smooth implementation of the conventions of the time. There is also a greater freedom in color.
From an institutional perspective, the emergence of modernity undermines the Academy in its power to authorize or prohibit the entry of a work to show. Juries exhibitions begin to lose their absolute credibility for the painters, the State and the public.
In 1863, at the Salon des Refuses , Napoleon III decided to “let the public judge alone,” and it is an outburst of laughter and sarcasm that struck The Luncheon on the Grass by Manet , and this is clearly show what influence the jury has on public opinion.
In 1884, the Academy no longer runs the Fine Arts and loses legitimacy in the eyes of artists and this loss of authority favors the emergence of creation called ” bohemian “and a revival of the market of the art galleries in which to become involved in the forefront.
The painters’ out-academy “final refusal to be exposed next to the academic painters. This is the reason for the creation in 1885 the Salon des Independants in 1890 the Salon of the National Society of Fine Arts and the Salon d’Automne in 1903.
The term “vanguard”
The term “vanguard” is claimed by the artists in their priority to research and innovation, in direct continuation of world expositions, from 1851 and a nearly simultaneous. This statement of the new is consistent with a complete break with the conventions: the conventional categories are shaken (oil on canvas painting, marble or bronze sculpture …) and bring the artists of the xx th century in create new such as collages , and assemblages , the ” ready-made “, etc.. These are the “vanguard” (a term derived from the military vocabulary and refers to a company cleared and sent to scout).
The avant-garde is not the act of a single artist, but rather a group that united in defense production, the “struggle” is a must for the dissemination of their new vision of the world. There is not one but several leading-edge, consisting of groups of artists more or less organized.
In 1936, Alfred Barr offers the Museum of Modern Art in New York an exhibition in which he set up a genealogical table of modern art. It deals with the legacy of Impressionism and his grading is now more a national school but after the observation of an international movement for a period of five years in succession. The table clearly shows the multiplicity of groups, their constant substitutions and their perpetual motion.
Chronology of movements and artists of modern art
Art Nouveau : Gustav Klimt , Alfons Mucha
Fauvism : André Derain , Henri Matisse , Maurice de Vlaminck
Cubism : Braque , Juan Gris , Fernand Léger , Pablo Picasso
Futurism : Giacomo Balla , Umberto Boccioni , Carlo Carra
Expressionism : James Ensor , Oskar Kokoschka , Edvard Munch , Emil Nolde
Abstraction : Wassily Kandinsky , Kasimir Malevich
De Stijl : Piet Mondrian : (beginning in 1917)
Bauhaus : Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee
Constructivism : Naum Gabo , László Moholy-Nagy
Dada : Jean Arp , Marcel Duchamp , Max Ernst , Francis Picabia , Kurt Schwitters
Expressionism : Georges Gimel
Surrealism : Salvador Dalí , Max Ernst , René Magritte , André Masson , Joan Miró
New Objectivity (“Neue Sachlichkeit”): Max Beckmann , Otto Dix , George Grosz
Figurative : Bernard Buffet , Jean Carzou , Yves Brayer , Maurice Boitel , Pierre-Henry , Daniel’s Janerand , Anthony Martinez , Martinez-Richter Alice Jean Monneret , Sébire Gaston , Louis Vuillermoz , Claude-Max Lochu
No extras : Jean Bazaine , Maurice Esteve , Jean Le Moal , Alfred Manessier , François Baron-Renouard
Outsider Art : Jean Dubuffet , Gaston Chaissac
The generic term “School of Paris” is problematic when used to describe a group of artists in particular. In fact, it does not refer to any school that really existed, the term has been unsuitable jobs, remains unclear and deserves to be clarified.
In his Dictionary of Painters of the School of Paris ( 1993 ), Lydia Harambourg justifies the use of the term by which it establishes continuity between the different phases of development of modern art on the part of artists have taken residence in Paris. His book does not have a school or course, but twenty years of painting in Paris :
“The term School of Paris will be kept, because no one else can better identify, in the years after the war, the supremacy of the capital in art. ”
In this sense, the School of Paris brings together artists who helped make Paris the center of artistic creation until the year 1960 .
We distinguish in general three major periods of change in the Parisian art scene xx th century , each one the manifestation of a renewal of the previous one. The first period runs from 1900 to 1920 , the second covers the period between the wars and the last refers to the post- World War II .
It’s January 27, 1925 that André Warnod uses the term “School of Paris” for the first time, and this in an article in the literary magazine Comœdia (founded by Gaston de Pawlowski 1907). He means well all foreign artists arrived at the beginning of xx th century in the capital in search of favorable conditions for their art. From 1900 to the First World War , Paris was in fact seen an influx of artists, often in Central Europe, which bind mainly to Montparnasse . Among them Marc Chagall , Pablo Picasso , Pascin , Amadeo Modigliani and Foujita Tsugouharu to name the most famous. The term “School of Paris” has acquired, at that time, a sense and generally accepted.
Many Jewish painters of the School of Paris. These artists come from the East: Russia , Poland , Germany , Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia , Romania , Hungary . They were familiar with the great French masters of the xix th century and know the Impressionists through their teachers as Józef Pankiewicz (in) to Krakow , Ilya Repin in St. Petersburg , Adolf Fenyes , Isaac Perlmutter in Budapest and Lovis Corinth to Berlin . Older than twenty years for the most part they were the actors of Jewish emancipation, and participate in the revival movement social and intellectual in Europe which is characterized by the loss of religious and political commitment, and are in coincidence with the cosmopolitan context of the great capitals of the time, Vienna, Berlin and especially Paris. According to the study of Nadine Nieszawer ( Jewish Painters in Paris 1905-1939 ), they are more than five hundred painters in Paris of the inter-war years, forming a network of friendship and, step by step , all knew each other.
Jewish artists of the School of Paris
The war of 1914-1918 will soon disperse them, referring to Germany Rudolf Levy (de) , Walter Bondy (de) and Otto Freundlich . Léopold Gottlieb from Poland to join the army of Marshal Pilsudski . Marc Chagall , Emmanuel Mane- Katz , Savely Schleifer returned to Russia.
Many people who volunteer in the French army: Kisling was reformed in 1915 after an injury, Louis Marcoussis , a friend of Apollinaire, will be decorated; Mondzain about Simon, he will keep the uniform until July 1918. Some reformed for health reasons, as Modigliani and Soutine , while volunteers are doing chores. Pascin to London to escape service in the Bulgarian army.
During the war years, the artists stayed in Paris without a pension or help show solidarity. From 1915, Marie Vassilieff held a canteen in his art studio in the dead of 21 Avenue du Maine, who is always full throughout the war. It speaks all languages.
World War I marked the entry of Jewish painters of Montparnasse on the Parisian scene. In December 1915, Germaine Bongard, sister of the couturier Paul Poiret , is sponsoring a series of exhibitions in her shop in the Rue de Penthièvre.
The first presents paintings by Modigliani, paintings by Kisling, who side with paintings by Picasso and paintings by Fernand Léger , of Henri Matisse and of André Derain .
These artists come apart gradually from the marginal position that was theirs. The return of the front gives them a “certificate of good conduct,” opportunities exist then.
Leopold Zborowski organized December 3, 1917 the first solo exhibition of Modigliani at the Galerie Berthe Weill , and the preface to the catalog, Blaise Cendrars wrote a poem.
The Between the Wars
Three steps of immigration of artists from the School of Paris
Eugene Zak left Warsaw for Paris in 1900, Muter Mela 1901, Jacques Gotko happen to Odessa in 1905 and Adolphe Feder of Ukraine in 1908, the same year as the German Otto Freundlich . Granowsky Samuel arrived in 1909, as Mendjizki Maurice, who just Łódź. Leaving Russia, Marc Chagall goes first, from 1910, four years in Paris. Istvan Farkas arrive in Budapest in 1912, Emmanuel Mane-Katz from Ukraine in 1913 …
Those who settled between 1900 and 1912 have had time to set up the network of friendships and relationships necessary for their growth. Other painters succeed them, fascinated by Montparnasse.
Join them soon: Vladimir Naiditch Moscow in 1920, Landau Zygmunt of Poland in 1920, Alexander fasin of Ukraine in 1922. The Russian Osip Lubitch arrives in 1923, the Belarusian Antcher Isaac in 1924, the Polish Esther Carp in 1925. Issachar Ryback happens to Ukraine in 1926, Iris Abraham (said Antoine IRISS ) arrives in Bessarabia in 1926, Jacob Macznik of Poland in 1928. As for the Russian prince, the painter Alexis Arapov , born in St. Petersburg, he fled the USSR in 1924, with a theater group.
The Between the wars therefore knows the arrival of other artists (including Russian, as Lanskoy André , Serge Poliakoff , Alexander Garbell , etc.). and sees the emergence of new stylistic trends, such as the abstraction and the importance of color in painting.
Once Hitler came to power in 1933, artists fleeing Nazi Germany: the Lithuanian Moses Bagel , Jésékiel Kirszenbaum Markiel and Jacob arrive in Paris. In Poland, Sat Ringer , after being forced to work in the construction of Auschwitz, was deported sequentially in nine different camps and eventually come to Paris in 1947 to enter the Fine Arts.
Replaces Montmartre Montparnasse. At Montparnasse, for twenty years, under the mantle or in the tables of the terraces of the Rotunda, the Dome, the Dome, traders buy and sell paintings by Derain, Utrillo paintings, paintings by Modigliani and Picasso miraculously escaped the carton painters.
Indeed, the three main coffee of the School of Paris are the Dome, the Rotonde and the Coupole.
The Dome was established in 1898 and it was around 1903 that the Germanic language of Jewish painters, Walter Bondy, Rudolf Levy (de) , Béla Czobel , Jules Pascin, Reszo Balint … make it their favorite place in the tradition of coffee Munich. They find art dealers Alfred Flechtheim (de) , Henir Bing … Other groups are composed of Scandinavian and Dutch painters.
The Rotunda is a former, taken over by Victor Libion in 1911. This man very generous hosts painters and painters sometimes a cleaner in exchange for drinks, but also Michel Larionov , Natalia Goncharova , Adolphe Feder. Financial difficulties forced Libion for sale La Rotonde in 1920. Like the dealers, this man has contributed to the outbreak of this life through his attitude and sensitivity.
It is said that André Salmon for years has campaigned for the statue of Balzac, boulevard Raspail, is replaced by that of Libion.
The Dome was opened in December 1927 by artists and managers of the Dome Fraux Laffont. About thirty painters decorated the pillars and walls with paintings directly on the concrete: Fernand Léger, Marie Vassilieff, David Seifert, Nathan Grunsweigh, Georges Kars , Othon Friesz …
World War II
A group of painters, who undertake to exhibit under the Occupation , is collected by the exhibition Twenty young painters of French tradition , organized in 1941 by Jean Bazaine and publisher André Lejard. The title of the exhibition conceals the demonstration of a painting does not conform to Nazi ideology of degenerate art .
“All these artists, old and very different trend, found themselves in agreement on the necessary strength of the paint. What made them accept this as a general and soothing, intended to reassure the occupying power (…) There was nothing else – nothing less – than to allow, by surprise, exposure Judeo-Marxist , in all its forms, at a time when the galleries were afraid to show that the art of persuasion Nazi. After refusing a number of galleries, the gallery Braun accepted the risk of exposure, which was greeted with torrents of abuse of a well-trained press, “wrote Jean Bazaine in 1998 2 .
Indeed, these artists are far from traditional forms of art. However, stored under the term “tradition”, they are not bothered by the censorship of the Vichy regime . “I remember quite well the preview: two German officers arrived who have advanced to the middle of the gallery. They threw a glance, looked at each other, turned on his heel. That’s it. That was when the Germans still wanted to be nice, “said yet Bazaine 3 . The exhibition is the manifesto of modern painting and brings together several artists tend to non-figurative: Jean Le Moal , Alfred Manessier , Charles Lapicque , Jean Bazaine , Edouard Pignon , Gischia Leon , Maurice Estève , Charles Walch, Gustave Singier , Jean Bertholle , André Beaudin and Lucien Lautrec .
Two years later, on 6 February to 4 March 1943 , a group exhibition, Twelve painters of today , is at the Galerie de France with Bazaine, Bores , Chauvin, Esteve, André Fougeron , Gischia, Lapicque, Le Moal , Pignon, Singier, Villon , Lautrec , Tal Coat . Despite their aesthetic differences, this group of emerging artists who will soon be appointed as members of a New School of Paris .
Pierre Francastel in a book published during the Occupation but to release in 1946 ( New Drawing. New paint. The School of Paris ), accredits indeed the Romanesque style and Cubist painters of the so-called “French tradition” in repeating the formula of Andrew Warnod.
Today, the term “Paris School” includes several meanings.
The term has been hijacked by some in the years 1950 to define a national figurative aesthetic, and it takes a strong pejorative connotation in the vocabulary of criticism in the late 1960′s fawned School of New York . In addition, Parisian galleries turns confusion about the term. In January 1952 , during an exhibition at Babylon, Charles Estienne opts not to collect as abstract artists to trends. They are presented as guarantors of the New School of Paris born between 1940 and 1950 . The gallery Charpentier in 1960 , is expanding its selection of artists. It is described by the Paris Biennale in 1961. The article Knowledge of Arts published at the time of the exhibition traces the content:
“Art is now in Paris, but also elsewhere in Italy , for example. This was even the organizers of the annual exhibition known as the School of Paris (Galerie Charpentier). They added to their guests twenty-seven Peverelli Italian painters which is the only one to live in Paris. Other, Burri, Dova, Schneider , and Fontana Orazi have gained an international reputation. ”
The “young painting” School of Paris
Created just after the war, the exhibition of “young painters” brings together painters born during or shortly after the First World War. The painter Gaëtan de Rosnay is the vice president. Sometimes they are artists who have not manifested during the occupation or not at all because they were actively involved in conflict in the ranks of the allied armies or in those of the Resistance. About these painters André Warnod uses the term New School of Paris . It is the expression he uses to rank particularly Maurice Boitel in 1954 and 1955 in Le Figaro .
Some Parisian galleries actively support these artists at the Liberation : Suillerot the gallery, the gallery The Chaplain, the gallery of the Elysee, Bernier Gallery, the gallery Drouant David and Maurice Garnier and John Sylvester of The Art Gallery of Place Beauvau.
Among the figurative painters of the most representative of this “young painters” are Rene Aberlenc , Roland Bierge , Bernard Buffet , Jansem , Yves Brayer , René Margotton , Maurice Boitel , Geoffroy Dauvergne , Vuillermoz Louis , Pierre-Henry , Daniel’s Janerand , Michel from Gallard , Bardone Guy , Paul Collomb , Sébire Gaston , Jean Joyet , Paul Schuss , Eliane Thiollier 4 , Michael Thompson , John Vinay , Claude Schurr , Danièle Perré 5 .
These are the same artists who refuse to comply with official standards of the era Malraux , whose works are found in major Parisian Salons , independent of political power throughout the second half of the xx th century .
Art critics and writers have written about famous painters of the School of Paris prefaces, books and articles in periodicals such as Libération , Le Figaro , The Painter , Combat , French Letters , The new literary . They include Emmanuel Georges-Clancier , Jean Paul Crespelle , Arthur Conte , Robert Beauvais , Jean Lescure , Jean Cassou , Bernard Dorival , André Warnod , George Besson , Boudaille Georges , Jean-Albert Cartier , Jean Chabanon , Raymond Cogniat , Guy Dornand , Jean Bouret , Raymond Charmet , Florent Fels , George Charensol , Frank Elgar , Roger Van Gindertael , Marcel Zahar .